Location: Kansai Dialect Self-study Site / Ch3. Basic Grammar / 1b Sentence Endings / 2 Grammar Note /

1. Sentence Particles (in Casual Conversation)

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?(raising tone)

Confirmation marker ね becomes な (のう is also used by elderly people), and assertion marker よ becomes で or わ (light assertion in Kansai dialect used by both males and females, different from feminine particle わ in Standard!). がな is a strong, blunt assertive particle usually used by elderly people/local merchants. Questions can be expressed with a raising tone, but か with flat high pitch is often added for yes-no question. け is a blunt question marker usually used by male /elderly people.

今日(きょう)、カレー()べるかあ。→ カレー?うん、食べる

(ST 今日カレー食べる-> カレー?う ん、食べる。)


(ST これ、食べる。ー>あ、 そう

かいな is usually used by elderly people, indicating simple wondering ("I wonder..."), doubt or strong negation (rhetorical question, "No way that...!"). Pay attention to the differences of the following two sentences in tone.


(ST こんなに古いの、食べられないよ!)


(ST 今日の新聞、どこに置いたかな?)

Extra 1: When do Kansai people use よ/ね?

Young people and women tend to use よ/ね nowadays, influenced by the Standard, but わ/で/な are still very common when talking casually and blunt.  When talking with です/ます style, よ/ね is preferred except among elderly people and local merchants.

Extra 2: ぼくが(つく)るわ

わ is a Kansai-typical particle for light assertion, used by both male and female across the generations. The use of this particle is also common when talking with です/ます style.


(ST じゃあ、今日はもう帰りますよ。)

Extra 3: More about かいな : はよ()きんかい(な)

When かい(な) follows concentrated verb negatives such as 食べん, ()ん, ()まん, it can be a command (usually used by older generation). Listen to the following two sentences carefully. Can you tell the difference of the tones?


  (ST はやく起きなさい!)


  (ST はやく起きないかなあ。)

Extra 4: もう(かえ)るえ〜

You may hear え at the end of the sentence when Kyoto women talk. It is a traditional feminine particle that is equivalent to a question marker か or assertion よ.

今晩(こんばん)は、ぎょうさん()むえ ~。

(ST 今晩は、たくさん飲むわよ!)